“Sit . . . Until . . .” The Multiple Witness of Scripture

By Robert Caringola

1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.

3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power... Psalm 110

What I am going to share with you in this article, I have shared with many Christians who thought they understood bible prophecy. From so called Doctors of Theology to the simply inquisitive, they all recoiled in what the prophets called “astonishment”! Their Christ-returning-any-day concepts were shattered.

Now, before I proceed:

9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.

10 And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel;

11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. Acts 1

This proclamation of the angels, I do believe! As a matter of fact, in the new Jerusalem of Revelation chapter 21, it states: “…God himself shall be with them, and be their God.” Vs.3b. The God who will walk amongst us, on this earth, is Jesus.

This glorious 110th Psalm makes is perfectly clear that Christ will symbolically “sit” on the right hand (the power of God) in the heavenly “until” his enemies are made His footstool, in other words, conquered. And take notice; it does not say that all His enemies will be saved. Many will have to be crushed by Zion, the Covenant Nations.

Note: If I just lost you, I encourage you to get to the Truth In History website and get informed.

Now before we look at several affirmations of this prophecy in the New Testament, let me ask you the same question I ask the brethren who are contemplating, for the first time, this theology-shaking theme. How can futurist Bible prophecy teachers (current 21st century speculators) try to tell us that we could have a rapture any day, then the Antichrist will appear for the seven year tribulation period? Wait a minute! Didn’t we just read that Christ will sit until his enemies are made His foot stool? So you’re trying to tell me that Christ will leave the throne, descend to the earth and rapture His saints, then the horrific “enemy” antichrist will arise?

Hey, just a fun and holy fact of scripture: Remember, Christ is the head of His body, the church. We have the feet. You mean that these hostile enemies will be our foot stool?

3 He shall subdue the people under us, and the nations under our feet. Psalm 47

20 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen. Romans 16

Hang in there. I’m just getting warmed up!

Our first witness as to the importance of David’s prophecy will be our Lord Jesus Christ. He was addressing the question of David’s son.

35 And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?

36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.

37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly. Mark 12

Christ’s vindication of this prophecy, relating to His future glory, is probably why the apostles were so adamant when quoting it on multiple occasions. The common people heard the Lord gladly. So be it again that soon the common people will hear the truth of this and gladly perceive its relevance in understanding the growth principle of the kingdom of God!

Now we turn to the apostles. Guess what is proclaimed by Peter at the opening volley of the New Testament church on the day of Pentecost?

33 Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.

34 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,

35 Until I make thy foes thy footstool.

36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ. Acts 2

The first New Testament apostolic sermon included this admonition. Peter wanted to make sure that the House of Israel knew that David spoke of Christ. And that this Christ would sit enthroned in power at the right hand of God – until! I assert that few in the House of Israel today know the truth of this passage and its inferences. How sad.

Here now we turn to Paul. He expounds on Psalm 110:1 and provides further insight and revelation (to put it mildly). Be assured, few in the ministry comprehend what is revealed here. Again, how sad.

24 Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.

25 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

26 The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.

27 For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

28 And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. I Corinthians 15

When death is destroyed, and not “until,” our God will come and walk amongst men again.

Our next witness will be the writer of Hebrews.

13 But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? Hebrews 1

The writer proceeds to clarify the truth of the matter:

8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him. Hebrews 2

12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down on the right hand of God;

13 From henceforth expecting [ waiting ] till his enemies be made his footstool. Hebrews 10

I ask, could it be any plainer?

I want the reader to understand that I have purposely presented this article in what might appear to be a choppy manner. I am not writing for the sake of prose and eloquence. I simply want to present the evidence of scripture. So let us now conclude with some sanctified common sense from the Book of Revelation.

Relative to the plan, order and continuum of this magnificent prophecy, the author of the “Horae Apocalypticae,” E.B Elliott, stated, “Accordingly, the three septenaries of Seals, Trumpets and Vials will be interpreted by me as a connected and consecutive series; - the seventh Seal unfolding itself in the seven Trumpet visions, the seventh Trumpet in the seven Vials: and this with no intermission or interruption.” This has come to pass and those of us who know the truth of the great protestant historical school of correct interpretation (Historicism) understand that we are currently somewhere transitioning from the sixth Vial to the seventh. It is in this seventh Vial that all Christ’s enemies are finally subjugated. Babylon falls! Gog and Magog are destroyed! The devil is cast into the lake of fire – forever and ever! And God will wipe away all tears, for the former things have passed away. After these things, the heavens will no longer retain our Lord. He will be walking amongst us – forever!

The definition of the word HISTORY is "an account of what has happened in the life and development of a people, country, institution, etc., usually with an analysis and explanation." Looking back through the events of time gives the informed observer insight into the all-important questions, such as the origin and gradual developments of any race, nation or people. Accurate historical accounts tells exactly what happened in past events, but it is the meaning and interpretation of those events where a difference of opinions arise. Because of these differing opinions, a number of interpretations have been set forth by historians in an effort to explain the purpose of past events.

If any historian or philosopher can satisfactorily explain to himself and his peers what transpired in the past; he therefore feels he can give a purposeful explanation of the present and the future. When examining each interpretation of history it is evident that each is based upon two major premises in the minds of their proponents: 

  1. Their concept of the person of Almighty God, and 
  2. Their belief concerning the purpose of man's existence. 

There are two major, yet opposing interpretations of history:


This interpretation promotes the concepts based upon the false theory of the "self-determination" of man. It rejects the idea of divine intervention and believes that man controls his own destiny. The following theories are aspects of the Secular World View: 

1. The Cyclical View sees all of history as a series of endless repeating cycles which have no ultimate purpose or goal. It teaches that there is no climax to history, therefore each cycle within itself is insignificant to the whole.

It views history as having no original plan from its beginning as designed by an all Sovereign Creator, therefore it reserves no place for an ultimate fulfilled purpose. This view has been widely accepted from antiquity by many eastern pagan religions of the ancient world based upon what they see in the repeating seasons of life-cycles of nature. This viewpoint has led to the naive acceptance of such beliefs as reincarnation, fatalism and utter hopelessness. 

2. The Marxist View is a philosophical scheme with all mankind as being involved in a "class struggle" between the bourgeoisie (capitalists, middle-class) and the proletariat (industrial working class) which will eventually result in a "utopia" or the "perfect socialist state." When formulating this philosophy, Karl Marx put all men into one of two categories: the "liberating class" as "saviors" or into the "oppressing class" as the adversaries of the perfect social order. This atheistic view polarizes society and has resulted in utter social chaos and revolution. Marx viewed man as nothing more than an economic materialistic animal whose sole purpose was to serve the all-powerful state through human labor. The result is utter hopelessness for mankind. 

3. The Existential View is often referred to as the open-ended view because it sees no real meaning or purpose to history or the future, but can only relate to the present. It was popularized in France after World War II, chiefly by Jean-Paul Sartre as a literary philosophic cult of nihilism and pessimism. It teaches that each individual exists as a separate entity in a purposeless universe and can only improve himself by opposing his hostile environment in exercising his free will. Nihilism is that philosophy which denies the existence of absolute truth and the foundational basis of knowledge. This was the basis of the hippie sub-culture known as "Moral Relativism." Its cry was "the right for absolute freedom of expression," "do your own thing," "do it if it feels good" or "if I don't think it's wrong, then it's all right." These concepts spawned a cultural revolution resulting in the breakdown of authority in our civilization. 

Within this theory, man is thought of only as a "social animal" without moral responsibility; so therefore, no accountability toward God his Creator, if such a Creator even exists. In other words, evil does not exist because no absolute moral laws exist. The existentialists embrace the beliefs that man is the only source of understanding our material universe, the social order and human nature itself. It has given rise to the anti-Biblical theory of "environmentalism verses human depravity" in teaching that man can only improve his moral status by changing the environment in which he lives with an attitude of total dependence on the state for social and economic support. Thus statism is born out of man's neglect of personal responsibility. If man is no longer responsible, he is therefore no longer accountable to a God of justice and His code of absolute moral laws, but is now accountable only to himself. Thus man has become his own "god." 


This interpretation accepts and teaches that God has a plan for mankind and is definitely involved and even intervenes in the affairs of human events. Accepting the Sovereign God as creator, He therefore is the Supreme Authority over all His creation.

 This is also known as the Providential View of history because it recognizes and accepts the intervening control of an All-Wise and Benevolent God both in the national and personal affairs of man. The origin of this view is found in the words of God Himself as recorded in the Christian Sacred Writings known as the Holy Bible. The Biblical concept of God is that He alone is the Creator and Sustainer of the universe and all that is therein. He alone has the right to exercise supreme authority over the affairs of men and to His laws all men have a responsibility to obey and someday will be held accountable for their actions. The supreme authority of God supersedes the authority of all men, institutions and civil governments. Therefore, the battle-cry of every Christian should be "to God alone belongs dominion." Being that Jesus Christ was the full incarnation of the Eternal God in flesh and now reigns victorious over death, hell and the grave, He alone deserves the rightful authority of dominion over all mankind. Therefore, to Him alone we affirm "The Crown Rights of King Jesus." 

The Historicist approach to prophecy is an admission of God's presiding control of history leading to a climactic conclusion with the fulfillment of God's plan as set forth in Scripture. It is one's understanding of God's plan in history that makes clear God's plan for the future.


In the following pages, numerous quotations from distinguished authors and church scholars will be found. Because of their schooling and/or unique positions in history, they have earned the right to speak with authority on this subject. Historicism is a viewpoint that dates back to the earliest centuries of the Church but seems to be almost forgotten today among the opposing schools of prophetic interpretation. There is a plethora of material espousing Futurism, an abundance of books promoting Preterism, but scant mention of Historicism today.


A panoramic of the entire Mount of Olives (Har...

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On the Mount of Olives, just outside the city of Jerusalem, Christ's Disciples, asked Him what signs would indicate the ending of the age and His return to set up His Kingdom. Jesus' reply to these questions is generally referred to as the Olivet Discourse, and during the course of it He gave certain information which not only describes the Great Tribulation, but which helps us to date its commencement and the geographical location where it would begin. To see this clearly, let us look at the accounts given of the words of the Lord Jesus in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.


The Cross of Jesus Christ is the Focal Point of all Human History and is That Which Gives Meaning to Man's Existence

by Charles A. Jennings

The definition of the word HISTORY is "an account of what has happened in the life and development of a people, country, institution, etc., usually with an analysis and explanation." Looking back through the events of time gives the informed observer insight into the all-important questions, such as the origin and gradual developments of any race, nation or people. Accurate historical accounts tells exactly what happened in past events, but it is the meaning and interpretation of those events where a difference of opinions arise. Because of these differing opinions, a number of interpretations have been set forth by historians in an effort to explain the purpose of what has taken place in the past.


Notice to Readers

In an attempt to provide a wide range of opinions and applications within the bounds of the Historicist interpretation of Bible prophecy, we have utilized the research and writings of a variety of scholars and historians. Being that the material found on this website has been written over a period of several hundred years, there will naturally be a difference of opinions and interpretations on various prophecies. This is due to the experience and knowledge along with the political and religious conditions which existed during the life time of each respective writer. For example; the perspective of John Wycliffe of the 14th century in England as opposed to the perspective of a 21st century writer in North America may somewhat differ on the same prophecy due to their respective vantage points of time, location and development of historical events.

These differences by no means invalidate the truthfulness of the Historicist approach to the all-important subject of Bible prophecy. Even though some teachers and writers may differ on some major beliefs such as the rapture, the nature of the Second Coming of Christ, the identification of Israel, or the modern Zionist state of Israeli, each writer sets forth a traditional Protestant view of Bible prophecy that has been unfolding in fulfillment throughout time extending from the Apostolic age until our present age.

Every opinion and/or interpretation presented on this website may not necessarily be the accepted belief of those who have made this website available.